16 Aug 2022
31 Aug 2022
Azerbaijan medical journal (ISSN: 0005-2523) - is a scopus indexed journal since 1961. The publisher of the journal is Izdatel'stvo Elm by WHO Office in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan medical journal (AMJ) is also UGC approved. The journal publishes general medicine, health science, psychological, pharmaceutical journals and so on.
Aim and Scope
Azerbaijan Medical Journal
Azerbaijan Medical Journal (ISSN: 0005-2523) - is a peer-reviewed journal. The journal seeks to publish original research articles that are hypothetical and theoretical in its nature and that provide exploratory insights in the following fields but not limited to.
Azerbaijan Medical Journal
MANAGEMENT ASPECTS OF CHILDREN'S HEALTH: DYSPLASTIC-DEPENDENT PATHOLOGY OF THE BRONCHOPULMONARY SYSTEM AND ECOLOGICAL HETEROGENEITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease of primarily premature infants that results from an imbalance between lung injury and repair in the developing lung. BPD is the most common respiratory morbidity in preterm infants, which affects nearly 10, 000 neonates each year in the United States. Over the last two decades, the incidence of BPD has largely been unchanged; however, the pathophysiology has changed with the substantial improvement in the respiratory management of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Here we have attempted to comprehensively review and summarize the current literature on the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of BPD. Our goal is to provide insight to help further progress in preventing and managing severe BPD in the ELBW infants.
The organization of the Enteric Nervous System (ENS) was studied in the human colon. Fragments of the whole colonic wall were either routinely processed or Zinc-Iodide Osmium impregnated. Single-layer preparations were also obtained from some of the Zinc-Iodide Osmium-impregnated specimens. The results showed some differences in the organization of human colonic ENS from that of other mammals. In fact, the human submucous plexus was made up of three interconnected ganglionated networks arranged along three different planes. With respect to the myenteric plexus, its ganglia were large sized and irregularly shaped. Moreover, during the microdissection of the colonic wall, we found the absence of a cleavage plane between the circular and longitudinal muscle layers; on the other hand the cleavage plane between mucosa and submucosa was not immediately below the muscularis mucosae, but slightly deeper, since the innermost part of the submucosa remained adhering to overlying layers.
This article highlights the issues of studying the psychosocial rehabilitation of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, provides findings of evidence-based medicine point of view on the need and appropriateness of the use of rehabilitation measures and the provision of psychosocial assistance to this category of patients. The study involved 38 patients of the main group with post-traumatic stress disorder (F43.1) in accordance with ICD-10 and 19 patients from the control group with a similar diagnosis, but without participation in psychosocial rehabilitation activities. Based on a detailed study and statistical analysis of patients' complaints, a general "bank" of the identified problems of psychosocial functioning in various spheres of activity was formed, the most important directions in the rehabilitation process were detected. Comparison of the main and control group results testifies in favor of the effectiveness of the developed complex system for the rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as evidenced by the significant predominance of the recovery rate and the absence of patients with mental deterioration in the main group. The results of the study carried out according to clinical and psych diagnostic indicators show the effectiveness of the developed complex system for the rehabilitation of patients with PTSD. The research work proves that the goal of rehabilitation work in patients with PTSD is achievable only when the activity of the pathological process, the mental state of the patient, his personality, features of the immediate social environment and individual standard of living are sufficiently taken into account.
Excessive body weight and obesity in childhood and adolescence are becoming more and more important unfavorable factors that entail extremely adverse consequences and require close attention of physicians of any specialty. Along with the high prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in pediatric patients, children and adolescents in the majority of countries are diagnosed with vitamin D deficiency. Among the non-calcaemic effects of vitamin D, a significant role is played by its impact on the hormonal regulation of glucose metabolism and the synthesis of adipokines by fat tissue. The review presents literature data indicative of a close pathogenic relationship between vitamin D insufficiency and impaired tissue insulin sensitivity. It demonstrates the role of vitamin D insufficiency in immune reactions resulting in development of subclinical inflammation in fat tissue infiltrated with macrophages and lymphocytes. It also shows the role of adipokines, immune system cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by them in the pathogenesis of obesity, as well as the function of vitamin D as an endocrine and paracrine regulator of the process of inflammation in adipose tissue. The relationships between the principal adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin) are revealed in the presence of normal vitamin D content and in vitamin D deficiency. The carbohydrate and lipid metabolism parameters in overweight children and adolescents with vitamin D insufficiency are analyzed. A high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in overweight and obese children and adolescents (increasing along with the severity of obesity) is demonstrated. The review also presents the current recommendations for the correction of vitamin D insufficiency and underlines the need for higher cholecalciferol doses to achieve serum calcifediol targets in overweight and obese children and adolescents.
This investigation reports the mineralogy and possible pathological significance of urinary stones removed from patients in Fars province, Iran. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and polarizing microscope (PM) techniques were used to investigate the mineralogical compositions of urinary stones. The identified mineral components include whewellite, weddellite, hydroxyapatite, uricite and cystine. These techniques revealed that the whewellite and uricite were the most common mineral phases. Platy-like/monoclinic whewellite, prismatic/monoclinic uric acid and hexagonal cystine crystals were revealed by SEM. Biominerals (calcium carbonate) and quartz were also identified in PM images. Of the variables determining the type of precipitated minerals, the effects of pH on depositional conditions proved to be the most apparent parameter, as shown by occurrences and relationships among the studied minerals. Our results revealed the importance of detailed knowledge of mineralogical composition in assessing the effects of age and sex. The highest incidence of urinary stones was observed in the 40–60 age group. Calcium oxalate and uric acid stones are more frequent in men than women. Finally, the study concluded that knowledge of the mineralogical composition of urinary stones is important as it helps the scientific community to explain the chemistry and the etiology of the calculi in the urinary system.
FEATURES OF ANTIBIOTIC ACCUMULATION IN APPENDIX DEPENDING ON THE METHOD OF ADMINISTRATION AND BLOOD SUPPLY
In respect that, lack dynamic of morbidity incidence of acute appendicitis and frequency of postoperative complications, against the backdrop of increasing the number of antibiotics. The problem of prevention of purulent-inflammatory complications during its surgical treatment remains relevant. The authors compared the intensity of accumulation of ceftriaxone in the appendix tissues depending on the method of injection. It turned out that with the intramuscular injection of ceftriaxone in 1–2 hours before the operation, its accumulation in appendix in an amount sufficient to delay the growth of the laboratory culture of Escherichia coli is not observed. After intravenous injection of the drug, accumulation occurs slowly, significantly far behind to the lymphotropic technique. With the lymphotropic injection of ceftriaxone, 1 hour before the operation, a dose of growth retardant culture test is already fixed, and with the intjection of 2 hours before the operation – the dose of ceftriaxone practically corresponds to the maximum possible, that is, the action of a “pure” antibacterial drug. The method of selecting antibiotic therapy for acute appendicitis is the introduction of ceftriaxone by lymphotropic route.
REHABILITATION THERAPY OF PATIENTS WITH POST COVID SYNDROME IN NAKHCHIVAN “DUZDAG” PHYSIOTHERAPY CENTER
COVID-19 patients may experience disability related to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission or due to immobilization. We assessed pre-post impact on physical performance of multi-component therapeutic exercise for post-COVID-19 rehabilitation in a post-acute care facility. A 30-minute daily multicomponent therapeutic exercise intervention combined resistance, endurance and balance training. Outcomes: Short Physical Performance Battery; Barthel Index, ability to walk unassisted and single leg stance. Clinical, functional and cognitive variables were collected. We included 33 patients (66.2±12.8 years). All outcomes improved significantly in the global sample (p<0.01). Post-ICU patients, who were younger than No ICU ones, experienced greater improvement in SPPB (4.4±2.1 vs 2.5±1.7, p<0.01) and gait speed (0.4±0.2 vs 0.2±0.1 m/sec, p<0.01). In conclusion, adults surviving COVID-19 improved their functional status, including those who required ICU stay. Our results emphasize the need to establish innovative rehabilitative strategies to reduce the negative functional outcomes of COVID-19
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to the general population, and this is only partially explained by traditional CVD risk factors. Vascular dysfunction is an important non-traditional risk factor, characterized by vascular endothelial dysfunction (most commonly assessed as impaired endothelium-dependent dilation [EDD]) and stiffening of the large elastic arteries. While various techniques exist to assess EDD and large elastic artery stiffness, the most commonly used are brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMDBA) and aortic pulse-wave velocity (aPWV), respectively. Both of these noninvasive measures of vascular dysfunction are independent predictors of future cardiovascular events in patients with and without kidney disease. Patients with CKD demonstrate both impaired FMDBA, and increased aPWV. While the exact mechanisms by which vascular dysfunction develops in CKD are incompletely understood, increased oxidative stress and a subsequent reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability are important contributors. Cellular changes in oxidative stress can be assessed by collecting vascular endothelial cells from the antecubital vein and measuring protein expression of markers of oxidative stress using immunofluorescence. We provide here a discussion of these methods to measure FMDBA, aPWV, and vascular endothelial cell protein expression.
СOMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF CLINICAL AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS IN PATIENTS WITH ADENOMYOSIS AND REPRODUCTIVE DYSFUNCTION
The aim of this review is to clarify the relative association between adenomyosis and infertility and the possible treatment for an infertile patient. Although adenomyosis is detected more often in women of late reproductive age, its influence on pregnancy rates is important, especially considering the tendency to delay pregnancy among women in developed countries. In this article, we present a critical analysis of the literature data concerning the impact of adenomyosis on fertility. The possible effects of treatment on the pregnancy rate will also be discussed. We conducted a literature search; publications from Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane databases published from 1982 to 2019 were retrieved using terms ’adenomyosis and infertility’ and ’adenomyosis and pregnancy outcomes’, extensively studied in the aspects of diagnosis, pathogenesis of infertility and possible treatment methods. Molecular studies have given deep insight into the pathogenesis of adenomyosis in the recent few years, but there is a huge discrepancy between in vitro studies and praxis. Oral contraceptive pills, anti-prostaglandins, oral or parenteral progestins, danazol and gonadotrophinreleasing hormone (GnRH) analogues have all been used to control menstrual pain and menorrhagia in women with adenomyosis, but they temporarily suppress the menstrual cycle. Additionally, endometrial ablation and hysterectomy used to alleviate pain caused by adenomyosis exclude pregnancy planning. The development of imaging techniques—ultrasound and MRI—enables the diagnosis of adenomyosis with very high accuracy nowadays, but the methods of treatment mentioned above have not given satisfactory results in women planning pregnancy. For these patients, the high-intensity-focused ultrasound method (HIFU) and combined treatment before assisted reproductive techniques can prove beneficial in adenomyosis patients
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by coronavirus severe acute respiratorysyndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused extensive disruption and mortality since its recent emergence. Concomitantly, there has been a race to understand thevirus and its pathophysiology. The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are manifoldand not restricted to the respiratory tract. Extrapulmonary manifestations involvingthe gastrointestinal tract, hepatobiliary system, cardiovascular and renal systems havebeen widely reported. However, the pathophysiology of many of these manifestationsis controversial with questionable support for direct viral invasion and an abundanceof alternative explanations such as pre-existing medical conditions and critical illness.Prior research on SARS-Co-V and NL63 was rapidly leveraged to identifyangiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor as the key cell surface receptor forSARS-CoV-2. The distribution of ACE2 has been used as a starting point for estimating vulnerability of various tissue types to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Sophisticatedorganoid and animal models have been used to demonstrate such infectivity ofextrapulmonary tissues in vitro, but the clinical relevance of these findings remainsuncertain. Clinical autopsy studies are typically small and inevitably biased towardspatients with severe COVID-19 and prolonged hospitalization. Technical issues suchas delay between time of death and autopsy, use of inappropriate antibodies forparaffin-embedded tissue sections and misinterpretation of cellular structures as virusparticles on electron micrograph images are additional problems encountered in theextant literature. Given that SARS-CoV-2 is likely to circulate permanently in humanpopulations, there is no doubt that further work is required to clarify the pathobiologyof COVID-19