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Abstract : Growing evidence has shown that miRNAs have significant impacts on gene regulation and are involved in the pathophysiology of IBD and other complicated illnesses. . This study highlights the use of microRNA 155 as a diagnostic marker for the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) disease activity. Patients were diagnosed according to European Crohn's and Colitis Organization (ECCO) criteria. The study included (50) 100 patients divided into two groups (50) with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Fifty subjects were selected as apparently healthy controls. miR 155 was detected by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT qPCR). This study showed that the average log fold change value of miR155 in plasma of IBD patients (184±161.11) was higher than that of the control group (80.41±14.093), and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.001). According to the ROC test, the mean convolution of UC and CD was significantly different (P=0.005) with a cutoff value of 186.1, with a sensitivity and specificity of 69% and 70%, respectively.. In conclusion measurements of serum, miRNA 155 may be useful in the evaluation of IBD patients